Latest by Richard Jefferys

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Vaccine Trial RV144 Squanders Public Goodwill and Scarce Research Funds -- But to What End?

Altruism Betrayed

On September 23, 2004, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee held a hearing to discuss the ongoing "prime-boost" Phase III HIV vaccine trial in Thailand. Documents from ...

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Timeline for the Initiation of the RV144 Prime-Boost Trial

1995-2001: U.S. Military HIV Research Program/Thai Ministry of Public Health collaboration tests various combinations of ALVAC prime/Env protein boost vaccines, eventually choosing to move ahead with the ALVAC vCP1521 vector boosted with AIDSVAX B/E....

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Treble Damages: Three Highlighted Studies From the AIDS Vaccine 2004 Conference

Technologically Challenged?

The AIDS Vaccines 2004 Conference was held from August 30-September 1 in Lausanne, Switzerland, the first of these meetings to be held outside the US (the first two were in Philadelphia in 2001 and New York City in 2003)....

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Against the Odds, Immune-Based Therapies for HIV Slog Along

Industry "Leery"

Despite more than two decades of research, there is as yet no approved immune-based therapy (IBT) for HIV infection. And while antiretrovirals continue to course through the developmental pipeline, relatively few potential immunolog...

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The Diabolic Science: VaxGen's Claims of Vaccine Efficacy Evanesce in Autumn's Last Light

The Bonferroni Blunder

On Monday February 24th, 2003, the biotech company VaxGen publicly announced the results of the first ever phase III efficacy trial of an HIV vaccine candidate, igniting an unexpected firestorm of controversy that has continue...

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Altered States

The ELISpot Conundrum

When an investigational drug causes a 0.4 log drop in viral load, it's evidence of biological activity.

When the first large auto-vaccination study produces the same result, it signals the end of an entire field of HIV re...

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Re-Infection Data Summarized

A Patient With HIV-1 Superinfection

New England Journal of Medicine, September 5, 2002, (Stephanie Jost, et al.)

A case report involving one 38 year old male, initially diagnosed with acute HIV infection in November 1998. At that time, anti-HIV ant...

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Immune-Based Therapies for HIV: A History

Cytokines Therapeutic Vaccines Immune Suppressants Thymus-Derived Therapies Cell-Transfer Therapies Antibody-Based IBTs Hormonal and Herbal IBTs Will There Ever Be an IBT for HIV?

The discovery of HIV in the mid-eighties led to an in...

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The Immune System: Behind the Scenes

Curtain Up Immunity's Stage Immunity's Script Cytokines and Chemokines Immunity's Actors Granulocytes Mononuclear Phagocytes Dendritic Cells Natural Killer Cells Complement T-Cells B-Cells and A...

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Immune Reconstitution Syndrome (IRS/IRIS)

Immune Restoration: Repairing the Damage

Assessing the Damage HAART and CD4 Cell Numbers Memory CD4 Cell Function Naïve CD4 Cell Function Calming Immune Activation Persistent Defects, Paradoxical Responses The Road Ahead

The ability of Highly Active AntiRetroviral Therapy (HA...