NINDS Neurological Complications of AIDS Information Page
- What Are Neurological Complications of AIDS?
- Is There Any Treatment?
- What Is the Prognosis?
- What Research Is Being Done?
- Clinical Trials
- Related NINDS Publications and Information
- [Publicaciones en Español](#Spanish Publications)
- Additional resources from MEDLINEplus
AIDS is primarily an immune system disorder caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), but it can also affect the nervous system. HIV does not appear to directly invade nerve cells but it jeopardizes their health and function, causing symptoms such as confusion, forgetfulness, behavioral changes, severe headaches, progressive weakness, loss of sensation in the arms and legs, stroke, cognitive motor impairment, or damage to the peripheral nerves. Other complications that can occur as a result of HIV infection or the drugs used to treat it include pain, seizures, shingles, spinal cord problems, lack of coordination, difficult or painful swallowing, anxiety disorder, depression, fever, vision loss, gait disorders, destruction of brain tissue, and coma. Other AIDS-related nervous system disorders may be caused by certain cancers or by illnesses that would not otherwise affect people with healthy immune systems.
Among the most common neurological complications are: AIDS dementia complex, causing symptoms such as encephalitis (inflammation of the brain), behavioral changes, and a gradual decline in cognitive function; central nervous system lymphomas, cancerous tumors that either begin in the brain or result from a cancer that has spread from another site in the body; cryptococcal meningitis; cytomegalovirus infections; herpes virus infections; neuropathy; neurosyphilis; progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML); and psychological and neuropsychiatric disorders.
No single treatment can cure the neurological complications of AIDS. Some disorders require aggressive therapy while others are treated symptomatically.
Medicines range from analgesics sold over the counter to antiepileptic drugs, opiates, corticosteroids, and some classes of antidepressants. Other treatments include radiation therapy or chemotherapy to kill or shrink cancerous brain tumors that may be caused by HIV, antifungal or antimalarial drugs to combat certain bacterial infections, and penicillin to treat neurosyphilis. Aggressive antiretroviral therapy is used to treat AIDS dementia complex, PML, and cytomegalovirus encephalitis. HAART, or highly active antiretroviral therapy, combines at least three drugs to reduce the amount of virus circulating in the blood and may also delay the start of some infections.
The overall prognosis for individuals with AIDS in recent years has improved significantly because of new drugs and treatments. AIDS clinicians often fail to recognize neurological complications of AIDS. Those who suspect they are having neurological complications should be sure to discuss these with their doctor.
Within the Federal government, the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS), one part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), supports research on the neurological consequences of AIDS. The NINDS works closely with its sister agency, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), which has primary responsibility for research related to HIV and AIDS.
- At NIH Clinical Center
- [Throughout the U.S. and Worldwide](http://clinicaltrials.gov/search/term=Neurological Complications of AIDS)
|Elizabeth Glaser Pediatric AIDS Foundation|
1140 Connecticut Avenue, NW
Washington, DC 20036
Tel: 202-296-9165 888-499-HOPE (-4673)
|amfAR, The Foundation for AIDS Research|
120 Wall Street
New York, NY 10005-3908
|National Association of People with AIDS|
8401 Colesville Road
Silver Spring, MD 20910
|National NeuroAIDS Tissue Consortium|
401 N. Washington Street
Rockville, MD 20850
Tel: 866-668-2272 301-251-1161 ext. 186
|National Prevention Information Network|
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, DHHS
P.O. Box 6003
Rockville, MD 20849-6003
Tel: 301-562-1098 800-458-5231
|National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)|
National Institutes of Health, DHHS
6610 Rockledge Drive, MSC 6612
Bethesda, MD 20892-6612
|AIDSInfo (AIDS Information Service)|
P.O. Box 6303
Rockville, MD 20849-6303
Tel: 301-519-0459 800-HIV-0440 (448-0440) TTY: 888-480-3739
- Alzheimer's Disease: Hope Through Research
Information booklet about Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia, and other types of dementia compiled by the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS).
- Health Disparities Planning Panel on NeuroAIDS in Minority Populations
Report of the Health Disparities Planning Panel on NeuroAIDS in Minority Populations meeting held July 16, 2001.