Somatic Symptoms: Mental Health Approach and Differential Diagnosis

November 2008

 < Prev  |  1  |  2  |  3  |  4  |  5 


  1. Kroenke K, Spitzer RL, Williams J. The PHQ-15: Validity of a new measure for evaluating the severity of somatic symptoms. Psychosom Med 2002;64:258-266. [PubMed]

  2. Jackson JL, Passamonti M, Kroenke K. Outcome and impact of mental disorders in primary care at 5 years. Psychosom Med 2007;69:270-276. [PubMed]

  3. Randazzo AC, Schweitzer PK, Stone KL, et al. Impaired cognitive function in insomniacs vs. normals. Sleep 2000;23:A4.

  4. Kuppermann M, Lubeck DP, Mazonson PD, et al. Sleep problems and their correlates in a working population. J Gen Intern Med 1995;10:25-32. [PubMed]

  5. Ammassari A, Murri R, Pezzotti P, et al. Self-reported symptoms and medication side effects influence adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy in persons with HIV infection. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2001;28:445-449. [PubMed]

  6. Ohayon MM, Roth T. Place of chronic insomnia in the course of depressive and anxiety disorders. J Psychiatr Res 2003;37:9-15. [PubMed]

  7. Darko DF, Mitler MM, Henriksen SJ. Lentiviral infection, immune response peptides and sleep. Adv Neuroimmunol 1995;5:57-77. [PubMed]

  8. Ford DE, Kamerow DB. Epidemiologic study of sleep disturbances and psychiatric disorders. An opportunity for prevention? JAMA 1989;262:1479-1484. [PubMed]

  9. Martin C, Pehrsson P, Osterberg A, et al. Pain in ambulatory HIV-infected patients with and without intravenous drug use. Eur J Pain 1999;3:157-164. [PubMed]

  10. Singer EJ, Zorilla C, Fahy-Chandon B, et al. Painful symptoms reported by ambulatory HIV-infected men in a longitudinal study. Pain 1993;54:15-19. [PubMed]

  11. Smith MY, Egert J, Winkel G, et al. The impact of PTSD on pain experience in persons with HIV/AIDS. Pain 2002;98:9-17. [PubMed]

  12. Breitbart W, Rosenfeld BD, Passik SD, et al. The undertreatment of pain in ambulatory AIDS patients. Pain 1996;65:243-249. [PubMed]

  13. Morrison RS, Wallenstein S, Natale DK, et al. "We don't carry that" -- Failure of pharmacies in predominantly nonwhite neighborhoods to stock opioid analgesics. N Engl J Med 2000;342:1023-1026. [PubMed]

  14. Portenoy RK. Definitions and principles of assessment. In: Contemporary Diagnosis and Management of Pain in Oncologic and AIDS Patients. Newtown, PA: Handbooks in Health Care; 2000:14-43.

  15. Lusher J, Elander J, Bevan D, et al. Analgesic addiction and pseudoaddiction in painful chronic illness. Clin J Pain 2006;22:316-324. [PubMed]

  16. Bair MJ, Robinson RL, Eckert GJ, et al. Impact of pain on depression treatment response in primary care. Psychosom Med 2004;66:17-22. [PubMed]

  17. Skapinakis P, Lewis G, Mavreas V. Temporal relations between unexplained fatigue and depression: Longitudinal data from an international study in primary care. Psychosom Med 2004;66:330-335. [PubMed]

  18. Ohayon MM. Specific characteristics of the pain/depression association in the general population. J Clin Psychiatry 2004;65(Suppl 12):5-9. [PubMed]

  19. Sullivan PS, Dworkin MS; Adult and Adolescent Spectrum of HIV Disease Investigators. Prevalence and correlates of fatigue among persons with HIV infection. J Pain Symptom Manage 2003;25:329-333. [PubMed]

  20. Addington AM, Gallo JJ, Ford DE, et al. Epidemiology of unexplained fatigue and major depression in the community: The Baltimore ECA follow-up, 1981-1994. Psychol Med 2001;31:1037-1044. [PubMed]

  21. Cathebras PJ, Robbins JM, Kirmayer LJ, et al. Fatigue in primary care: Prevalence, psychiatric comorbidity, illness behavior, and outcome. J Gen Intern Med 1992;7:276-86. [PubMed]

  22. Rabkin JG, McElhiney MC, Rabkin R, et al. Modafinil treatment for fatigue in HIV+ patients: A pilot study.  J Clin Psychiatry 2004;65:1688-1695. [PubMed]

  23. Rabkin JG, McElhiney MC, Rabkin R, et al. Placebo-controlled trial of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) for treatment of nonmajor depression in patients with HIV/AIDS. Am J Psychiatry 2006;163:59-66. [PubMed]

  24. Mylonakis E, Koutkia P, Grinspoon S. Diagnosis and treatment of androgen deficiency in human immunodeficiency virus-infected men and women. Clin Infect Dis 2001;33:857-864. [PubMed]

  25. Kalyani RR, Gavini S, Dobs AS. Male hypogonadism in systemic disease. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 2007;36:333-348. [PubMed]

  26. Dolan SE, Carpenter S, Grinspoon S. Effects of weight, body composition, and testosterone on bone mineral density in HIV-infected women. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2007;45:161-167. [PubMed]

  27. Corless IB, Kirksey KM, Kemppainen J, et al. Lipodystrophy-associated symptoms and medication adherence in HIV/AIDS. AIDS Patient Care STDS 2005;19:577-586. [PubMed]

Further Reading

American Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine. Bethesda, MD. Available at:

Cohen MA, Gorman JM, eds. Comprehensive Textbook of AIDS Psychiatry. New York: Oxford University Press; 2008.

Fernandez F, Ruiz P, eds. Psychiatric Aspects of HIV/AIDS. 1st ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2006.

Organization of AIDS Psychiatry. Bethesda, MD: Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine. Available at:

Sharp TJ, Harvey AG. Chronic pain and posttraumatic stress disorder: Mutual maintenance? Clin Psychol Rev 2001;21:857-877. [PubMed]

Smith RC, Lein C, Collins C, et al. Treating patients with medically unexplained symptoms in primary care. J Gen Intern Med 2003;18:478-489. [PubMed]

Williams LS, Jones WJ, Shen J, et al. Outcomes of newly referred neurology outpatients with depression and pain. Neurology 2004;63:674-677. [PubMed]

 < Prev  |  1  |  2  |  3  |  4  |  5 

This article was provided by New York State Department of Health AIDS Institute.

No comments have been made.

Add Your Comment:
(Please note: Your name and comment will be public, and may even show up in
Internet search results. Be careful when providing personal information! Before
adding your comment, please read's Comment Policy.)

Your Name:

Your Location:

(ex: San Francisco, CA)

Your Comment:

Characters remaining:


The content on this page is free of advertiser influence and was produced by our editorial team. See our content and advertising policies.