Spotlight Center on HIV Prevention Today


The Evidence for U=U: Why Negligible Risk Is Zero Risk

August 10, 2017

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  1. Undetectable = Untransmittible
  2. U=U consensus statement: Risk of sexual transmission of HIV from a person living with HIV who has an undetectable viral load.
  3. Beckerman K et al. Control of maternal HIV-1 disease during pregnancy. Int Conf AIDS 1998 Jun 28-Jul 3; 12:41. Poster abstract 459. (PDF)
  4. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS). Guidelines for the Use of Antiretroviral Agents in HIV-1-Infected Adults and Adolescents. December 1998. (PDF)
  5. Quinn TC et al. Viral load and heterosexual transmission of HIV type 1. Rakai Project Study Group. N Engl J Med 2000; 342: 921-929. Free online access.
  6. Castilla J, del Romero J, Hernando V, Marincovich B, Garcia S, Rodriguez C. Effectiveness of highly active antiretroviral therapy in reducing heterosexual transmission of HIV. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2005;40:96-101. Free full text.
  7. Vernazza P et al. HIV-positive individuals not suffering from any other STD and adhering to an effective antiretroviral treatment do not transmit HIV sexually. (Les personnes séropositives ne souffrant d'aucune autre MST et suivant un traitment antirétroviral efficace ne transmettent pas le VIH par voie sexuelle). Bulletin des médecins suisses 89 (5), 30 January 2008. Included with English translation. (PDF)
  8. Cohen MS et al for the HPTN 052 Study Team. Prevention of HIV-1 infection with early antiretroviral therapy. Supplementary information. NEJM 2011; 365:493-505.
  9. Cohen MS et al. Final results of the HPTN 052 randomized controlled trial: antiretroviral therapy prevents HIV transmission. IAS 2015, 19-22 July 2015, Vancouver. MOAC0101LB.
  10. Rodger A et al. HIV transmission risk through condomless sex if HIV+ partner on suppressive ART: PARTNER Study. 21st CROI, 3-6 March 2014, Boston. Oral late breaker abstract 153LB. (webcast)
  11. Rodger AJ et al for the PARTNER study group. Sexual activity without condoms and risk of HIV transmission in serodifferent couples when the HIV-positive partner is using suppressive antiretroviral therapy. JAMA, 2016;316(2):1-11. DOI: 10.1001/jama.2016.5148. (12 July 2016). Full free access.
  12. PARTNER2 Study (2014-2017).
  13. Grulich A et al. HIV treatment prevents HIV transmission in male serodiscordant couples in Australia, Thailand and Brazil. IAS 2017, Paris. Oral abstract TUAC0506LB.
  14. Fox J et al. Quantifying sexual exposure to HIV within an HIV-serodiscordant relationship: development of an algorithm. AIDS 2011, 25:1065-1082. DOI:10.1097/QAD.0b013e328344fe4a. Free online access.
  15. Collins S. Undetectable = Uninfectious. Positive Person's Forum, 1 July 2017, Glasgow. (PDF)
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