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Hepatitis C in Canadian Immigrants and Newcomers: Why Are Hepatitis C Rates Higher in These Populations?

February 6, 2017

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References

  1. Greenaway C, Thu Ma A, Kloda L, et al. The seroprevalence of hepatitis C antibodies in immigrants and refugees from intermediate and high endemic countries: A systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS ONE. 2015;10(11):e0141715. Available from http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0141715
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  3. Immigration and Ethnocultural Diversity in Canada. National Household Survey, 2011. Ministry of Industry, 2013. Available from: www12.statcan.gc.ca/nhs-enm/2011/as-sa/99-010-x/99-010-x2011001-eng.cfm
  4. Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada. Facts and figures 2014 -- Immigration overview: Permanent residents. Canada -- Permanent residents by source category. Government of Canada, 2015. Available from: www.cic.gc.ca/english/resources/statistics/facts2014/permanent/02.asp
  5. Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada. Facts and figures 2013 -- Immigration overview: Permanent residents. Canada -- Permanent residents by source country. Government of Canada, 2015. Available from: www.cic.gc.ca/english/resources/statistics/facts2013/permanent/10.asp
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  10. Immigration Medical Examination Instructions: Hepatitis/liver disease. Centre for Communicable Diseases and Infection Control, Public Health Agency of Canada, 2013. Available from: www.cic.gc.ca/english/department/partner/pp/pdf/IMEI_Hepatitis.pdf
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  14. Waheed Y, Safi SZ, Qadri I. Role of Potash Alum in Hepatitis C virus Transmission at Barber's Shop. Virology Journal. 2011;8:211. Available from: www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3112445/
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  17. Kamstra R, Azoulay L, Steele R, Klein M, Greenaway C. Hospitalizations in Immigrants and Nonimmigrants Diagnosed With Chronic Hepatitis C Infection in Québec. Clinical Infectious Diseases. 2016;63(11):1439-1448.
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  19. Ha S, Totten S, Pogany L, et al. Hepatitis C in Canada and the importance of risk-based screening. Canada Communicable Disease Report. 2014 Mar 3;42-3:57-62. Available from: www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/publicat/ccdr-rmtc/16vol42/dr-rm42-3/assets/pdf/16vol42_3-ar-02-eng.pdf
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  23. Institute of Medicine (US) Committee on the Prevention and Control of Viral Hepatitis Infection. Knowledge and Awareness About Chronic Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C. In: Colvin HM, Mitchell AE, (eds.) Hepatitis and Liver Cancer: A National Strategy for Prevention and Control of Hepatitis B and C. Washington, DC: National Academies Press (US); 2010. Available from: www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK220038/
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  26. Yan MC, Chan S. Are social workers ready to work with newcomers? Canadian Social Work. 2011;12:16-23.
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  28. Identifying Vulnerable Workers and Precarious Work. In: Vulnerable Workers and Precarious Work: Final Report. Law Commission of Ontario, Toronto, ON; December 2012. Available from: www.lco-cdo.org/en/vulnerable-workers-interim-report-sectionii
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  31. Asanin J, Wilson K. "I spent nine years looking for a doctor": Exploring access to health care among immigrants in Mississauga, Ontario, Canada. Social Science & Medicine. 2008 Mar;6:1271-1283.
  32. Strengthening employment legislation in Ontario: Upstream policies to help promote health and well being. Association of Ontario Health Centres. 2015. Available from: www.aohc.org/sites/default/files/documents/2015-06-18%20-%20Final%20AOHC%20Submission%20Changing%20Workplaces%20Review.pdf
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  34. Housing, Family and Social Statistics Division, Statistics Canada. Immigrants' choice of destination. In: Longitudinal Survey of Immigrants to Canada: Process, progress and prospects. Ministry of Industry, 2003. Available from: www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/89-611-x/4152881-eng.htm
  35. Murdie RA. Diversity and concentration in Canadian immigration. Centre for Urban & Community Studies Research Bulletin. 2008 Mar;42. Available from: www.urbancentre.utoronto.ca/pdfs/researchbulletins/CUCSRB42-Murdie-Cdn-Immigration3-2008.pdf
  36. Cotler SJ, Cotler S, Xie H, et al. Characterizing hepatitis B stigma in Chinese immigrants. Journal of Viral Hepatitis. 2012 Feb;19(2):147-152.
  37. Caulford P. Health care for Canada's medically uninsured immigrants and refugees. Whose problem is it? Canadian Family Physician. 2012 Jul;58(7):725-727. Available from: www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3395500/
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This article was provided by Canadian AIDS Treatment Information Exchange. It is a part of the publication Prevention in Focus: Spotlight on Programming and Research. Visit CATIE's Web site to find out more about their activities, publications and services.

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