Many Factors -- From Marijuana to Heart Disease -- Tied to Mental Slowing With HIV

September 2016

 < Prev  |  1  |  2 

What the Results Mean for You

This well-planned study linked a diverse group of factors to cognitive impairment or decreased cognitive performance (falling mental performance) in middle-aged and older men with HIV infection responding very well to antiretroviral therapy. The factors tied to worse cognitive performance included one HIV-related factor (lower lowest-ever CD4 count), one behavioral factor (smoking marijuana), one body size factor (above normal waist-to-hip ratio), and four non-HIV diseases or conditions (cardiovascular disease, diabetes, poor kidney function, and symptoms of depression).

Thus the study strongly suggests that different processes may contribute to cognitive impairment or decreasing cognitive performance in men with HIV. Some of these processes may be directly related to HIV infection (lowest-ever CD4 count) and some may be indirectly related or unrelated to HIV. In this way the study confirms that as people grow older with HIV infection (most men in this study were in their late 40s through early 60s), many aspects of their health and behavior are closely related to each other. For example, a person with diabetes runs a higher risk of poor kidney function and cardiovascular disease -- three of the cognitive impairment risk factors in this study.

The researchers point out that all the factors they linked to cognitive impairment or performance in this study have been linked to cognitive problems in the general population and/or in people with HIV in previous studies. Most of these risk factors can be avoided, controlled, or reversed. Following your HIV provider's advice to lead a healthy lifestyle can go a long way toward preventing or controlling cardiovascular disease, diabetes, kidney disease, and overweight or obesity (indicated here by a high waist-to-hip ratio). Elements of a healthy lifestyle that may affect all these conditions are quitting (or not starting) smoking, maintaining a steady level of physical activity, eating a balanced diet, and avoiding excessive alcohol or party drug use.


Depression affects many people with HIV. But providers often fail to notice or treat depression in people with HIV.5 If you think you have depression (feelings of persistent sadness or hopelessness), talk to your provider about it. Several medications, with or without short-course psychotherapy, can help people overcome depression.

Previous studies have linked smoking marijuana to cognitive problems in people with and without HIV. Some people smoke marijuana for health reasons (for example, to control neuropathy [foot pain], nausea, or mood problems), and some people smoke pot just because they like it. In either case, marijuana smokers should realize that too much pot can negatively affect cognitive performance and have other bad effects on their health. Medical marijuana is legal in many parts of the United States and Western Europe. If you think marijuana can help relieve physical problems you have, you should get advice from a health professional on using it -- you should not try to treat yourself.

The researchers note that results of their study may not apply to everyone with HIV. All HIV-positive participants in this study were 45-year-old or older men in whom antiretroviral therapy had kept the viral load undetectable for many years. And 93% of HIV-positive study participants were gays or other men who have sex with men. The researchers also stress that this kind of study does not prove the identified factors cause cognitive problems -- only that these seven factors are somehow linked to cognitive problems.

* A normal waist-to-hip ratio is below 0.9, meaning waist width should be less than 90% of hip width.

** As judged by increased albumin-to-creatinine ratio.


  1. Schouten J, Su T, Wit FW, et al. Determinants of reduced cognitive performance in HIV-1-infected middle-aged men on combination antiretroviral therapy. AIDS. 2016;30:1027-1038.
  2. Antinori A, Arendt G, Becker JT, et al. Updated research nosology for HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. Neurology. 2007;69:1789-1799.
  3. Su T, Schouten J, Geurtsen GJ, et al. Multivariate normative comparison, a novel method for more reliably detecting cognitive impairment in HIV infection. AIDS. 2015;29:547-557.
  4. Schouten J, Wit FW, Stolte IG, et al. Cross-sectional comparison of the prevalence of age-associated comorbidities and their risk factors between HIV-infected and uninfected individuals: the AGEhIV cohort study. Clin Infect Dis. 2014;59:1787-1797.
  5. Pence BW, O'Donnell JK, Gaynes BN. Falling through the cracks: the gaps between depression prevalence, diagnosis, treatment, and response in HIV care. AIDS. 2012;26:656-658.
 < Prev  |  1  |  2 

Related Stories

Three Non-AIDS Illnesses Tied to Cognitive Impairment in Men With HIV
This Week in HIV Research: Determinants of Cognitive Impairment, and Discovery of 'Teenage' Broadly Neutralizing Antibody
High Rates of Age-Related Disease With HIV -- But No Sign of Accelerated Aging

This article was provided by The Center for AIDS Information & Advocacy. It is a part of the publication HIV Treatment ALERTS!. Visit CFA's website to find out more about their activities and publications.

No comments have been made.

Add Your Comment:
(Please note: Your name and comment will be public, and may even show up in
Internet search results. Be careful when providing personal information! Before
adding your comment, please read's Comment Policy.)

Your Name:

Your Location:

(ex: San Francisco, CA)

Your Comment:

Characters remaining:


The content on this page is free of advertiser influence and was produced by our editorial team. See our content and advertising policies.