Spotlight Center on HIV Prevention Today


HIV Prevention, Criminalization and Sex Work: Where Are We At?

Fall 2016

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  1. World Health Organization. Prevention and Treatment of HIV and Other Sexually Transmitted Infections for Sex Workers in Low- and Middle-Income Countries. Geneva; 2012. Available from:
  2. Shannon K, Strathdee SA, Goldenberg SM, et al. Global epidemiology of HIV among female sex workers: Influence of structural determinants. Lancet. 2015;385(9962):55-71.
  3. Poteat T, Wirtz AL, Radix A, et al. HIV risk and preventive interventions in transgender women sex workers. Lancet. 2015;385(9964):274-286.
  4. Baral SD, Friedman MR, Geibel S, et al. Male sex workers: practices, contexts, and vulnerabilities for HIV acquisition and transmission. Lancet. 2015;385:260-273.
  5. Beyrer C, Crago AL, Bekker LG, et al. An action agenda for HIV and sex workers. Lancet. 2015;385:287-301.
  6. Decker MR, Crago AL, Chu SKH, Set al. Human rights violations against sex workers: burden and effect on HIV. Lancet. 2015;385(9963):186-199.
  7. Open Society Foundations. Criminalizing condoms: How policing practices put sex workers and HIV services at risk in Kenya, Namibia, Russia, South Africa, USA, and Zimbabwe. Sexual Health and Rights Project. New York; 2012
  8. Shannon K, Csete J. Violence, condom negotiation, and HIV/STI risk among sex workers. Journal of the American Medical Association. 2010;304(5):573-574.
  9. Shannon K, Strathdee SA, Shoveller J, et al. Structural and environmental barriers to condom use negotiation with clients among female sex workers: implications for HIV-prevention strategies and policy. American Journal of Public Health. 2009;99(4):659-665.
  10. Aggleton P, Wood K, Malcolm A, Parker R. HIV-Related Stigma, Discrimination and Human Rights Violations: Case Studies of Successful Programmes. Geneva; 2005. Available from:
  11. Lazarus L, Deering KN, Nabess R, et al. Occupational stigma as a primary barrier to health care for street-based sex workers in Canada. Culture Health & Sexuality. 2012;14(2):139-150.
  12. NSWP (Network of Sex Work Projects). HIV and STI Testing and Treatment Policies. 2016. Available from:
  13. Abel GM, Fitzgerald LJ, Brunton C. The Impact of Decriminalisation on the Number of Sex Workers in New Zealand. Journal of Social Policy. 2009;38(03):515.
  14. Krüsi A, Pacey K, Bird L, et al. Criminalisation of clients: reproducing vulnerabilities for violence and poor health among street-based sex workers in Canada-a qualitative study. BMJ Open. 2014;4(e005191).
  15. My Work Should Not Cost Me My Life: The Case Against Criminalizing the Purchase of Sexual Services in Canada. Vancouver: Sex Workers United Against Violence, Pivot Legal Society, Gender and Sexual Health Initiative, 2014. Available from:
  16. Argento E, Taylor M, Jollimore J, Taylor C, Jennex J, Krusi A, et al. The loss of Boystown and transition to online sex work: Strategies and barriers to increase safety among men sex workers and clients of men. American Journal of Men's Health.2016, in press.
  17. Anderson, Jia JX, Liu V, et al. Violence prevention and municipal licensing of indoor sex work venues in the Greater Vancouver Area: narratives of migrant sex workers, managers and business owners. Culture, Health & Sexuality. 2015;17(7):825-41.
  18. Cohan D, Lutnick A, Davidson P, et al. Sex worker health: San Francisco style. Sexually Transmitted Infections. 2006;82(5):418-22.
  19. Argento E, Duff P, Bingham B, et al. Social cohesion among sex workers and client condom refusal in a Canadian setting: Implications for structural and community-led interventions. AIDS and Behavior. 2015;1-9.
  20. Krüsi A, Chettiar J, Ridgway A, et al. Negotiating safety and sexual risk reduction with clients in unsanctioned safer indoor sex work environments: a qualitative study. American Journal of Public Health. 2012 Jun;102(6):1154-1159.
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This article was provided by Canadian AIDS Treatment Information Exchange. It is a part of the publication Prevention in Focus: Spotlight on Programming and Research. Visit CATIE's Web site to find out more about their activities, publications and services.

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