March 14, 2014
In August 2012, the Houston Department of Health contacted CDC regarding the rare transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) likely by sexual contact between two women. The case was investigated, and laboratory testing confirmed that the woman with newly diagnosed HIV infection had a virus virtually identical to that of her female partner, who was diagnosed previously with HIV and who had stopped receiving antiretroviral treatment in 2010. This report describes this case of HIV infection, likely acquired by female-to-female sexual transmission during the 6-month monogamous relationship of the HIV-discordant couple (one negative, one positive). The woman with newly acquired infection did not report any other recognized risk factors for HIV infection, and the viruses infecting the two women had >98% sequence identity in three genes. The couple had not received any preventive counseling before acquisition of the virus by the woman who had tested negative for HIV. HIV-discordant couples should receive counseling regarding safer sex practices, and HIV-infected partners should be linked to and retained in medical care.
Transmission of HIV between women who have sex with women (WSW) has been reported rarely and is difficult to ascertain. The potential for HIV transmission by female-to-female sexual contact includes unprotected exposure to vaginal or other body fluids and to blood from menstruation, or to exposure to blood from trauma during rough sex. Other potential exposures associated with HIV transmission in WSW that must be ruled out include injection drug use (IDU), heterosexual sex, tattooing, acupuncture, piercing, use of shared sex toys between the partners and other persons, exposure to body fluids of others, and receipt of transplants or transfusion.
In April, 10 days after donating plasma, the woman went to an emergency department with a sore throat, fever, vomiting, decreased appetite, pain on swallowing, dry cough, frequent diarrhea, and muscle cramps. At that time, she was again tested for HIV by EIA serology screening, and the results were negative. She was treated with azithromycin for a presumed upper respiratory infection and discharged. Eighteen days later, the woman attempted to sell plasma but was refused because she tested positive for HIV by EIA serology screening followed by an HIV-1 Western blot test. On July 5, results of repeated EIA and Western blot tests conducted on the woman at a health clinic were positive for HIV infection.
The likely source of the patient's new HIV infection was her female sex partner aged 43 years who had tested positive for HIV in September 2008 when she had an HIV-1 viral load of 82,000 copies/mL and a CD4+ T-lymphocyte count of 372 cells/mm3 (25%). The partner began antiretroviral treatment in February 2009 but stopped in November 2010. Although she had esophageal candidiasis and weight loss at the time of her HIV diagnosis, her HIV-1 viral load had decreased to 178 copies/mL, and her CD4+ T-lymphocyte count had increased to 554 cells/mm3 (44%) by January 2011, when she was lost to follow-up.
The couple reported routinely having unprotected (using no barrier precautions) oral and vaginal contact and using insertive sex toys that were shared between them but were not shared with any other persons. They described their sexual contact as at times rough to the point of inducing bleeding in either woman. They also reported having unprotected sexual contact during the menses of either partner. The recently infected woman reported that her partner was her only sexual contact during the 6 months before her seroconversion.
On September 10, 2012, the newly infected woman tested positive for HIV by HIV-1/2/O EIA, and her HIV-1 Western blot was positive for all bands. Her Multispot test was reactive to HIV-1 only, and she had an HIV-1 viral load of 23,600 copies/mL. The partner's blood tested positive by HIV-1/2/O EIA, and her HIV-1 Western blot was positive for all bands. Her Multispot test was reactive to HIV-1 only, and she had a HIV-1 viral load of 69,000 copies/mL. HIV-1 polymerase (pol), group antigen (gag), and envelope (env) sequences were amplified by polymerase chain reaction from specimens from both women. Phylogenetic analyses of the pol and env sequences revealed that both women had highly related sequences with pairwise nucleotide identity of 98.7% in gag and 98.0% in both env and pol. Neither pol sequence had any major drug resistance mutations but shared the following polymorphisms: protease (M36I, R41K, and L63T) and reverse transcriptase (R83K, K122E, I178L, and R211K).
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