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New Best Practice Guidelines for Harm Reduction Programs Promote Needle Distribution

Spring 2014

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Resources

Best Practice Recommendations for Canadian Harm Reduction Programs that Provide Service to People Who Use Drugs and are at Risk for HIV, HCV, and Other Harms

Sticking Points: Barriers to Access to Needle and Syringe Programs in Canada


References

  1. World Health Organization. Priority interventions: HIV/AIDS prevention, treatment and care in the health sector; 2009.
  2. Strike C, Hopkins S, Watson TM, Gohil H, Leece P, Young S, Buxton J, Challacombe L, Demel G, Heywood D, Lampkin H, Leonard L, Lebounga Vouma J, Lockie L, Millson P, Morissette C, Nielsen D, Petersen D, Tzemis D, Zurba N. Best Practice Recommendations for Canadian  arm Reduction Programs that Provide Service to People Who Use Drugs and are at Risk for HIV, HCV, and Other Harms: Part 1. Toronto, ON: Working Group on Best Practice for Harm Reduction Programs in Canada. 2013.
  3. Abdala N, Reyes R, Carney JM, Heimer R. Survival of HIV-1 in syringes: effects of temperature during storage. Substance Use and Misuse, 2000;35:1369-1383.
  4. Abdala N, Stephens PC, Griffith BP, Heimer R. Survival of HIV-1 in syringes. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes and Human Retrovirology, 1999;20:73-80.
  5. Heimer R, Abdala N. Viability of HIV-1 in syringes: implications for interventions among injection drug users. AIDS Reader, 2000;10:410-417.
  6. Chitwood DD, McCoy CB, Inciardi JA, McBride DC, Comerford M, Trapido E, McCoy V, Page B, Griffin J, Fletcher MA, Ashman MA. HIV seropositivity of needles from shooting galleries in south Florida. American Journal of Public Health, 1990;80:150-152.
  7. Heimer R, Kaplan EH, Khoshnood K, Jariwala B, Cadman EC.  Needle exchange decreases the prevalence of HIV-1 proviral DNA in returned syringes in New Haven, Connecticut. American Journal of Medicine, 1993; 95:214-220.
  8. Shah SM, Shapshak P, Rivers JE, Stewart RV, Weatherby NL, Xin KQ.  Detection of HIV-1 DNA in needle/syringes, paraphernalia, and washes from shooting galleries in Miami: a preliminary laboratory report. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes and Human Retrovirology, 1996;11:301-306.
  9. Shapshak P, Fujimura RK, Page JB, Segal D, Rivers JE, Yang J. HIV-1 RNA load in needles/syringes from shooting galleries in Miami: a preliminary laboratory report. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 2000;58:153-157.
  10. Kiyosawa K, Sodeyama T, Tanaka E, Nakano Y, Furuta S, Nishioka K, Purcell RH, Alter HJ. Hepatitis C in hospital employees with needlestick injuries. Annals of Internal Medicine, 1991; 115:367-369.
  11. Mitsui T, Iwano K, Masuko K, Yamazaki C, Okamoto H, Tsuda F, Tanaka T, Mishiro S. Hepatitis C virus infection in medical personnel after needlestick accident. Hepatology, 1992;16:1109-14.
  12. Paintsil E, He H, Peters C, Lindenbach BD, Heimer R. Survival of hepatitis C virus in syringes: Implication for transmission among injection drug users. The Journal of Infectious Diseases, 2010;202(7):984-990.
  13. Crofts N, Caruana S, Bowden S, Kerger M. Minimising harm from hepatitis C virus needs better strategies. British Medical Journal, 2000;321:899.
  14. Public Health Agency of Canada. Brief Report: Hepatitis B Infection in Canada. Surveillance and Epidemiology Division, Disease and Infection Control, Infectious Disease Prevention and Control Branch. 2011.
  15. Thompson SC, Boughton CR, Dore GJ.  Bloodborne viruses and their survival in the environment: is public concern about community needlestick exposures justified? Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health 2003;27(6):602-607.
  16. Public Health Agency of Canada, Pathogen Regulation Directorate. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) Pathogen Safety Data Sheet -- Infectious Substances; 2011.
  17. Public Health Agency of Canada. I-Track: Enhanced surveillance of risk behaviours among injecting drug users in Canada. Phase 1 report. Ottawa: Surveillance and Risk Assessment Division, Centre for Infectious Disease Prevention and Control, Public Health Agency of Canada; 2006.
  18. Public Health Agency of Canada. Summary: Estimates of HIV Prevalence and Incidence in Canada, 2011. Surveillance and Epidemiology Division, Professional Guidelines and Public Health Practice Division, Centre for Communicable Diseases and Infection Control, Public Health Agency of Canada, 2012.
  19. Robert Remis. Modelling the incidence and prevalence of hepatitis C infection and its sequelae in Canada, 2007 final report. Public Health Agency of Canada.
  20. Fischer B, Rehm J, Brissette S, Brochu S, Bruneau J,El-Guebaly N, et al. Illicit opioid use in Canada: comparing social, health, and drug use characteristics of untreated users in five cities (OPICAN study). Journal of Urban Health, 2005;82(2):250-266.
  21. Fischer B, Manzoni P, Rehm J. Comparing injecting and non-injecting illicit opioid users in a multisite Canadian sample (OPICAN Cohort). European Addiction Research, 2006;12(4):230-239.
  22. Ivsins A, Chow C, Macdonald S, Stockwell T, Vallance K, Marsh DC, Michelow W, Duff C. An examination of injection drug use trends in Victoria and Vancouver, BC after the closure of Victoria's only fixed-site needle and syringe programme. International Journal of Drug Policy, 2012 July;23(4):338-340.
  23. Millson M, Leonard L, Remis RS, Strike C, Challacombe L. Injection drug use, HIV and HCV infection in Ontario: The situation in 2004.  University of Toronto: HIV Social, Behavioural and Epidemiological Studies Unit. 2005.
  24. Roy E, Boudreau JF, Leclerc P, Boivin JF, Godin G. Trends in injection drug use behaviors over 10 years among street youth. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 2007;89(2-3):170-175.
  25. Urban Health Research Initiative of the British Columbia Centre for Excellence in HIV/AIDS. Drug situation in Vancouver. 2009.
  26. Bluthenthal RN, Ridgeway G, Schell T, Anderson R, Flynn NM, Kral AH. Examination of the association between syringe exchange program (SEP) dispensation policy and SEP client-level syringe coverage among injection drug users. Addiction, 2007 Apr;102(4):638-646.
  27. Zule WA, Desmond DP, Neff JA. Syringe type and drug injector risk for HIV infection: a case study in Texas. Social Science and Medicine, 2002;55(7):1103-1113.

Carol Strike, Ph.D., is an associate professor at the University of  Toronto's Dalla Lana School of Public Health, with 15 years of  experience in harm reduction, addiction treatment and health services research.

Tara Marie Watson completed her Ph.D. at the Centre for Criminology and Sociolegal Studies, University of Toronto. She has long-standing research interests and experience in drug policy, harm reduction and corrections.

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This article was provided by Canadian AIDS Treatment Information Exchange. It is a part of the publication Prevention in Focus: Spotlight on Programming and Research. Visit CATIE's Web site to find out more about their activities, publications and services.
 

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