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Federal Funding for Syringe Services Programs: Saving Money, Promoting Public Safety and Improving Public Health

March 2013

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References

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  2. CDC. (2012). HIV surveillance in injection drug users (through 2010) (slide 3).
  3. For more on the goal of an AIDS-Free Generation, see www.pepfar.gov/.
  4. CDC. (2012). Hepatitis C FAQs for health professionals: Overview and statistics. (Date last accessed: November 9, 2012.)
  5. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. (2005). World drug report 2005: Chapter 3. HIV/AIDS and drugs (page 149). (Date last accessed: November 13, 2012.)
  6. Bluthenthal, R.N., Kral, A.H., Gee, L., Erringer, E.A., Edlin, B.R. (2000). The effect of syringe exchange use on high-risk injection drug users: a cohort study. AIDS, 14(5), 605-11.
  7. Des Jarlais, D.C., Guardino, V., Nugent, A., Arasteh, K., Purchase, D. (2012). (unpublished data) 2010 National survey of syringe exchange programs: summary of results. North American Syringe Exchange Network. (Date last accessed: November 16, 2012.)
  8. Ibid.
  9. Des Jarlais, D.C., Guardino, V., Nugent, A., Arasteh, A., Purchase, D. 2011 National Survey of Syringe Exchange Programs: Summary of Results. Presented at the 9th National Harm Reduction Conference: "From Public Health to Social Justice," Portland, OR, November, 2012.
  10. MacNeil, J., Pauly, B. (2011). Needle exchange as a safe haven in an unsafe world. Drug and Alcohol Review, 30(1), 26-32.
  11. Des Jarlais D.C., McKnight, C., Goldblatt, C., Purchase, D. (2009). Doing harm reduction better: syringe exchange in the United States. Addiction, 104(9), 1441-6.
  12. McNeil, R., Guirguis-Younger, M., Dilley, L.B., Aubry, T.D., Turnbull, J., Hwang, S.W. (2012). Harm reduction services as a point-of-entry to and source of end-of-life care and support for homeless and marginally housed persons who use alcohol and/or illicit drugs: a qualitative analysis. BMC Public Health, 12, 312.
  13. For this publication, the term "syringes" refers to both syringes and needles.
  14. World Health Organization. (2004). Effectiveness of sterile needle and syringe programming in reducing HIV/AIDS among injecting drug users. (Date last accessed: December 12, 2012.)
  15. National Institutes of Health. (February 11-13, 1997). Consensus Development Conference Statement: Interventions to prevent HIV risk behaviors. (Date last accessed: January 7, 2013.)
  16. Knox, R. (Posted July 24, 2012). Needle exchanges often overlooked in AIDS fight. NPR Shots: Health news From NPR. (Date last accessed: December 12, 2012.)
  17. Cohen J. (13 July 2012). Miracle on 34th Street: Success with injectors. Science, 337(6091), 178-180.
  18. Des Jarlais, D.C., Arasteh, K., Friedman, S. R. (2011). HIV among drug users at Beth Israel Medical Center, New York City, the first 25 years. Substance Use & Misuse, 46(2-3), 131-139.
  19. Groseclose, S.L., Weinstein, B., Jones, T.S., Valleroy, L.A., Fehrs, L.J., Kassler, W.J. (1995). Impact of increased legal access to needles and syringes on practices of injecting-drug users and police officers -- Connecticut, 1992-1993. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes and Human Retrovirology, 10(1), 82-9.
  20. Tookes, H.E., et al. (2012). A comparison of syringe disposal practices among injection drug users in a city with versus a city without needle and syringe programs. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 123(1-3), 255-9.
  21. Hagan, H., McGough, J.P., Thiede, H., Hopkins, S., Duchin, J., Alexander, E.R. (2000). Reduced injection frequency and increased entry and retention in drug treatment associated with needle-exchange participation in Seattle drug injectors. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 19, 247-252.
  22. Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2010. Public law 111-117. (December 16, 2009. Sections 505 and 810.) (Date last accessed: November 19, 2012.)
  23. Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2012. Public law 112-74. (December 23, 2011. Section 523.) (Date last accessed: November 19, 2012.)
  24. amfAR. (2012). Syringe exchange programs in the United States, 2012 (map). (Date last accessed: November 13, 2012.)
  25. Nguyen, T.Q., Weir, B.W., Pinkerton, S.D., Des Jarlais, D.C., Holtgrave, D. (July 23, 2012). Increasing investment in syringe exchange is cost-saving HIV prevention: modeling hypothetical syringe coverage levels in the United States (MOAE0204). Presented at the XIX International AIDS Conference, Washington D.C. (Date last accessed: December 11, 2012.) The model assumed that approximately 2,500 infections occur each year as a consequence of sharing injecting equipment in the United States.
  26. Des Jarlais D.C., McKnight, C., Milliken, J. (2004). Public funding of US syringe exchange programs. Journal of Urban Health, 81(1), 118-21.
  27. Schackman, B.R., Gebo, K.A., Walensky, R.P. et al. (November 2006). The lifetime cost of current Human Immunodeficiency Virus care in the United States. Medical Care, 44(11), 990-997.
  28. Knowlton, A.R., Hoover, D.R., Chung, S.E., Celentano, D.D., Vlahov, D., Latkin, C.A..(2001). Access to medical care and service utilization among injection drug users with HIV/AIDS. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 64(1):55-62.
  29. Mizuno, Y. et al. (2006). Correlates of health care utilization among HIV-seropositive injection drug users. AIDS Care, 18(5):417-25.
  30. Ibid.
  31. CDC. (September 2002). Fact sheet: Viral hepatitis and injection drug users. (Date last accessed: December 12, 2012.)
  32. Des Jarlais, D.C., et al. (2005). Reductions in hepatitis C virus and HIV infections among injecting drug users in New York City, 1990-2001. AIDS, 19(suppl 3), S20-S25.
  33. Des Jarlais, D.C. Personal communication.
  34. Nguyen, T.Q., Weir, B.W., Pinkerton, S.D., Des Jarlais, D.C., Holtgrave, D. (July 23, 2012). Increasing investment in syringe exchange is cost-saving HIV prevention: modeling hypothetical syringe coverage levels in the United States (MOAE0204). Presented at the XIX International AIDS Conference, Washington D.C. (Date last accessed: December 11, 2012.)
  35. Ibid.
  36. Ibid.
  37. Office of National Drug Control Policy. (2012). 2012 National Drug Control Strategy. (Date last accessed: December 12, 2012.)
  38. New Jersey Syringe Access Program Demonstration Project. (January 2010). Interim report: Implementation of P.L. 2006, c.99, "Blood-borne Disease Harm Reduction Act." (Date last accessed: December 12, 2012.)
  39. Silverman, B., Thompson, D., Baxter, B., Jimenez, A.D., Hart, C., Hartfield, C. (July 25, 2012). First federal support for community based syringe exchange programs: A panel presentation by SAMHSA grantees (Poster WEPE234). Presented at the International AIDS Conference Poster Session, Washington, D.C. (Date last accessed: December 12, 2012.)
  40. Ibid.
  41. Des Jarlais, D.C., Guardino, V., Nugent, A., Arasteh, K., Purchase, D. (2012). (unpublished data) 2010 National survey of syringe exchange programs: summary of results. North American Syringe Exchange Network. (Date last accessed: November 27, 2012.)
  42. Personal communication, state agency officials.
  43. amfAR. (2012). Syringe exchange programs in the United States, 2012 (map). (Date last accessed: November 13, 2012.)
  44. Des Jarlais, D.C., Guardino, V., Nugent, A., Arasteh, A., Purchase, D. 2011 National Survey of Syringe Exchange Programs: Summary of Results. Presented at the 9th National Harm Reduction Conference: "From Public Health to Social Justice," Portland, OR, November, 2012.
  45. Ibid.
  46. Harm Reduction Coalition. (2006). Fact sheet. Syringe exchange programs: Reducing the risks of needlestick injuries. (Date last accessed: December 12, 2012.)
  47. Ksobiech, K. (2004). Return rates for needle exchange programs: A common criticism answered. Harm Reduction Journal, 1(1), 2.
  48. Des Jarlais, D.C., Guardino, V., Arasteh, K., McKnight, C., Milliken, J., Purchase, D. (17 November 2010). Current state of syringe exchange in the known universe. As presented at the North American Syringe Exchange Conference 2010 in Austin, Texas. (Date last accessed: November 13, 2012.)
  49. Doherty, M.C., Junge, B., Rathouz, P., Garfein, R.S., Riley, E., Vlahov, D. (2000). The effect of a needle exchange program on numbers of discarded needles: A 2-year follow-up. American Journal of Public Health, 90(6), 936-939.
  50. Oliver, K.J., Friedman, S.R., Maynard, H., Magnuson, L., Des Jarlais, D.C. (1992). Impact of a needle exchange program on potentially infectious syringes in public places. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 5, 534-535.
  51. Tookes, H.E., et al. (2012). A comparison of syringe disposal practices among injection drug users in a city with versus a city without needle and syringe programs. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 123(1-3), 255-9.
  52. Lorentz, J., Hill, J., Samini, B. (2000). Occupational needle stick injuries in a metropolitan police force. American Journal of Preventive Medicine,18, 146-150.
  53. Groseclose, S.L., Weinstein, B., Jones, T.S., Valleroy, L.A., Fehrs, L.J., Kassler, W.J. (1995). Impact of increased legal access to needles and syringes on practices of injecting-drug users and police officers -- Connecticut, 1992-1993. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes and Human Retrovirology, 10(1), 82-9.
  54. CDC. (December 2012). Fact sheet: New HIV infections in the United States.
  55. CDC. (December 2012). Estimated HIV incidence in the United States, 2007-2010. HIV Surveillance Supplemental Report 2012, 17(4), (6-7). Published December 2012. (Date last accessed: January 4, 2013.)
  56. CDC. (2012). HIV surveillance in injection drug users (through 2010) (slide 3).
  57. CDC. (November 2011). Fact sheet: HIV among African Americans.
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  59. Towey, K., Fleming, M., eds. (2006). Policy and resource guide: Alcohol use and adolescents (pp. 41). Chicago, IL: American College of Preventive Medicine and American Medical Association National Coalition for Adolescent Health.
  60. American Public Health Association. (November 13, 2002). Syringe prescription to reduce disease related to injection drug use (Policy #2002-12). (Date last accessed: December 12, 2012.)
  61. Kolata, G. (1995, September 24). Sept. 17-23: The AIDS epidemic; scientists endorse needle exchanges. The New York Times. (Date last accessed: December 12, 2012.)
  62. Provisional Committee on Pediatric AIDS. (1994). Reducing the risk of Human Immunodeficiency Virus infection associated with illicit drug use. Pediatrics, 94(6), 945-947. (Date last accessed: December 12, 2012.)
  63. World Health Organization. (2004). Effectiveness of sterile needle and syringe programming in reducing HIV/AIDS among injecting drug users. (Date last accessed: December 12, 2012.)
  64. World Bank. (2003). Local government responses to HIV/AIDS: A handbook (page 16). (Date last accessed: December 12, 2012.)
  65. International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies. (2003). Spreading the light of science: Guidelines on harm reduction related to injecting drug use (page 31). (Date last accessed: December 12, 2012.)
  66. American Bar Association. (April 2011). ABA Washington letter: ABA urges federal support for syringe exchange programs. (Date last accessed: December 12, 2012.)
  67. United States Conference of Mayors, Health and Human Services Committee. (June 2000). Removal of legal barriers to access to sterile syringes by injection drugusers. (Date last accessed: December 12, 2012.)
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This article was provided by amfAR, The Foundation for AIDS Research. Visit amfAR's website to find out more about their activities and publications.
 

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