- Ubel PA, Hirth RA, Chernew ME, Fendrick AM. What is the price of life and why doesn't it increase at the rate of inflation? Arch Intern Med 2003; 163(14): 1637-1641.
- Braithwaite RS, Meltzer DO, King JT Jr, Leslie D, Roberts MS. What does the value of modern medicine say about the $50,000 per quality-adjusted life-year decision rule? Med Care 2008; 46(4): 349-356.
- Gebo KA, Fleishman JA, Conviser R, Hellinger J, Hellinger FJ, Josephs JS, Keiser P, Gaist P, Moore RD; HIV Research Network. Contemporary costs of HIV healthcare in the HAART era. AIDS 2010; 24(17): 2705-2715.
- Schackman BR, Gebo KA, Walensky RP, Losina E, Muccio T, Sax PE, Weinstein MC, Seage GR 3rd, Moore RD, Freedberg KA. The lifetime cost of current human immunodeficiency virus care in the United States. Med Care 2006; 44(11):990-997.
- Phillips KA, Fernyak S. The cost-effectiveness of expanded HIV counseling and testing in primary care settings: a first look. AIDS 2000; 14(14): 2159-2169.
- Walensky RP, Losina E, Malatesta L, Barton GE, O'Connor CA, Skolnik PR, Hall JM, McGuire JF, Freedberg KA. Effective HIV case identification through routine HIV screening at urgent care centers in Massachusetts. Am J Public Health 2005; 95(1): 71-73.
- Silva A, Glick NR, Lyss SB, Hutchinson AB, Gift TL, Pealer LN, Broussard D, Whitman S. Implementing an HIV and sexually transmitted disease screening program in an emergency department. Ann Emerg Med 2007; 49(5): 564-572.
- Mehta SD, Hall J, Greenwald JL, Cranston K, Skolnik PR. Patient risks, outcomes, and costs of voluntary HIV testing at five testing sites within a medical center. Public Health Rep 2008; 123(5): 608-617.
- Farnham PG, Hutchinson AB, Sansom SL, Branson BM. Comparing the costs of HIV screening strategies and technologies in health-care settings. Public Health Rep 2008; 123 Suppl 3: 51-62.
- Shrestha RK, Clark HA, Sansom SL, Song B, Buckendahl H, Calhoun CB, Hutchinson AB, Heffelfinger JD. Cost-effectiveness of finding new HIV diagnoses using rapid HIV testing in community-based organizations. Public Health Rep 2008; 123 Suppl 3: 94-100.
- Golden MR, Gift TL, Brewer DD, Fleming M, Hogben M, St Lawrence JS, Thiede H, Hnadsfield HH. Peer referral for HIV case-finding among men who have sex with men. AIDS; 20(15): 1961-1986.
- Shrestha RK, Sansom SL, Richardson-Moore A, French PT, Scalco B, Lalota M, Llanas M, Stodola J, Macgowan R, Margolis A. Costs of voluntary rapid HIV testing and counseling in jails in 4 states--Advancing HIV Prevention Demonstration Project, 2003-2006. Sex Transm Dis 2009; 36(2 Suppl): S5-S8.
- Harrison KM, Song RG, Zhang XJ. Life expectancy after HIV diagnosis based on national HIV surveillance data from 25 states, United States. JAIDS 2010; 53(1): 124-130.
- Losina E, Schackman BR, Sadownik SN, Gebo KA, Walensky RP, Chiosi JJ, Weinstein MC, Hicks PL, Aaronson WH, Moore RD, Paltiel AD, Freedberg KA. Racial and sex disparities in life expectancy losses among HIV-infected persons in the United States: impact of risk behavior, late initiation, and early discontinuation of antiretroviral therapy. Clin Infect Dis 2009; 49(10): 1570-1578.
- Phillips AN, Gazzard B, Gilson R, Easterbrook P, Johnson M, Walsh J, Leen C, Fisher M, Orkin C, Anderson J, Pillay D, Delpech V, Sabin C, Schwenk A, Dunn D, Gompels M, Hill T, Porter K, Babiker A; UK Collaborative HIV Cohort Study. Rate of AIDS diseases or death in HIV-infected antiretroviral therapy-naï¿½ve individuals with high CD4 cell count. AIDS 2007; 21(13): 1717-1721.
- The Antiretroviral Therapy Cohort Collaboration. Life expectancy of individuals on combination antiretroviral therapy in high-income countries: a collaborative analysis of 14 cohort studies. Lancet 2008; 372: 293-299.
- May M, Compels M, Sabin CA. Impact on life expectancy of late diagnosis and treatment of HIV-1 infected individuals: UK CHIC. Journal of the International AIDS Society 2010; 13 (Suppl 4): O27.
- Prejean J, Song R, Hernandez A, Ziebell R, Green T, Walker F, Lin LS, Mermin J, Lansky A, Hall HI; HIV Incidence Surveillance Group. Estimated HIV Incidence in the United States, 2006-2009. PLoS ONE 2011; 6(8): e17502.
- Boily MC, Baggaley RF, Wang L, Masse B, White RG, Hayes RJ, Alary M. Heterosexual risk of HIV-1 infection per sexual act: systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. Lancet Infect Dis 2009; 9(2): 118-129.
- Baggaley RF, White RG, Boily MC, HIV transmission risk through anal intercourse: systematic review, meta-analysis and implications for HIV prevention. Int J Epidemiol 2010; 39(4): 1048-1063.
- Vittinghoff E, Douglas J, Judson F, McKirnan D, MacQueen K, Buchbinder SP. Per-contact risk of human immunodeficiency virus transmission between male sexual partners. Am J Epidemiol 1999; 150(3): 306-311.
- Baggaley RF, Boily MC, White RG, Alary M. Risk of HIV-1 transmission for parenteral exposure and blood transfusion: a systematic review and meta-analysis. AIDS 2006; 20(6): 805-812.
- Bayoumi AM, Redelmeier DA. Economic methods for measuring the quality of life associated with HIV infection. Qual Life Res 1999; 8(6): 471-480.
- Schackman BR, Goldie SJ, Freedberg KA, Losina E, Brazier J, Weinstein MC. Comparison of health state utilities using community and patient preference weights derived from a survey of patients with HIV/AIDS. Med Decis Making 2002; 22(1): 27-38.
- Tengs TO, Lin TH. A meta-analysis of utility estimates for HIV/AIDS. Med Decis Making 2002; 22(6): 475-481.
- Farnham PG, Holtgrave DR, Sansom SL, Hall HI. Medical costs averted by HIV prevention efforts in the United States, 1991-2006. JAIDS 2010; 54(5): 565-567.
- Tufts Medical Center Cost-Effectiveness Analysis Registry
This U.S.-based database offers detailed information on more than 2,500 English-language cost-effectiveness analyses published in the peer-reviewed medical and economic literature. The original cost per QALY estimates from a wide array of diseases and intervention types are retrieved and updated to the most recent year for comparison purposes.
- National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE)
NICE serves the United Kingdom's National Health Services and is well-known for developing and publishing guidelines on public health, health technologies and clinical practice based on evaluations of efficacy and cost-effectiveness evidence. It also sets quality standards and manages a national database for high-quality, cost-effective patient care, covering the treatment and prevention of different diseases and conditions. NICE provides access to quality information and best practices so that care decisions can be made based on the best possible evidence.
- NHS Economic Evaluation Database (EED)
This UK-based database focuses on the economic evaluation of health care interventions, including cost-benefit analyses, cost-utility analyses, and cost-effectiveness analyses. Extensive literature searches are undertaken each week, and brief details from eligible studies are published on the database. Studies that are relevant to the UK health care system are considered priorities for writing abstracts, which include a non-technical summary of the topic, conclusions, and a brief description of the effectiveness information. A critical commentary summarizes the overall reliability and generalizability of the study.
Cost Inflation Tool
Consumer Price Index (CPI)
The Consumer Price Index (CPI) is a measure of the average change over time in the prices paid by urban consumers for a market basket of consumer goods and services. Every month the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) surveys prices and generates the CPI. The CPI includes all consumer expenditure items in more than 200 categories, arranged into eight major CPI components, such as housing, transportation, medical care, etc. Researchers often use the medical care component of the CPI to adjust health care costs reported in previous years to their value in current dollars.
Historic CPI series and component data can be found at the Bureau of Labor Statistics website: www.bls.gov/cpi/.
How to adjust medical costs using CPI
The formula for calculating current costs using the CPI is relatively simple. Assume the medical care component of CPI for year 1990 is 125. A CPI for year 2000 of 175 indicates a 1.4 cost adjustment or a 40% increase in medical-related expenditures since 1990.
||Medical Care Component of CPI
||Inflation Rate From Year 1 to Year 5
Assume the medical costs for condition X are estimated to be $10,000 per patient in year 1990. By multiplying $10,000 by 1.4, we get the value of the medical costs for condition X in 2000. In other words, treatment valued at $10,000 in 1990 would cost $14,000 in 2000.
Additional Prevention Modeling and Economics Team (PMET) Publications
- Prabhu VS, Farnham PG, Hutchinson AB, Soorapanth S, Heffelfinger JD, Golden MR, Brooks JT, Rimland D, Sansom SL. Cost-effectiveness of HIV screening in STD clinics, emergency departments, and inpatient units: a model-based analysis. PLoS One 2011; 6(5): e19936.
- Hutchinson AB, P. Patel, S. L. Sansom, P. G. Farnham, T. J. Sullivan, B. Bennett, P. R. Kerndt, R. K. Bolan, J. D. Heffelfinger, V. S. Prabhu, and B. M. Branson. Cost-effectiveness of pooled nucleic acid amplification testing for acute HIV infection after third-generation HIV antibody screening and rapid testing in the United States: a comparison of three public health settings. PLoS Med 2010; 7: e1000342.
- Prabhu VS, Hutchinson AB, Farnham PG, Sansom SL. Sexually acquired infections in the United States due to acute-phase HIV transmission: an update. AIDS 2009;23(13): 1792-1794.
- Sansom SL, Hutchinson AB, An Q, Hall I, Shrestha RK, Prabhu VS, Lasry A, Taylor A. Cost-effectiveness of newborn circumcision in preventing HIV among U.S. males. PLoS One 2010; 5(1): e8723.
- Hutchinson AB, Farnham PG, Duffy N, Wolitski RJ, Sansom SL, Dooley SW, Cleveland JC, Mermin JH. Return on public health investment: CDC's expanded HIV testing initiative. JAIDS 2011 (Epub ahead of print).