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Results of the Expanded HIV Testing Initiative -- 25 Jurisdictions, United States, 2007-2010

June 24, 2011

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What is already known on this topic?

In the United States, approximately 20% of persons with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are unaware of their infections and therefore do not access medical care and prevention services that can prevent morbidity and mortality and reduce further HIV transmission. Often, persons with HIV infection visit health-care settings years before receiving a diagnosis but are not tested for HIV because neither these persons nor their health-care providers recognize that they are at risk for HIV infection.

What is added by this report?

CDC's Expanded HIV Testing Initiative, launched in 2007, represents the first national effort to promote routine HIV screening in various clinical and nonclinical venues. During October 2007 - September 2010, a total of 2,786,739 tests were conducted, and 18,432 HIV infections were newly diagnosed; clinical settings accounted for 90% of all tests and 81% of all new HIV diagnoses.

What are the implications for public health practice?

Expanding opportunities for HIV testing, particularly in health-care settings, can lead to the diagnosis of a substantial number of new infections, which can lead to reduced morbidity, mortality, and transmission. To meet national goals for reducing the number of HIV-infected persons who are unaware of their serostatus, health departments should continue to partner with clinical-care providers to expand implementation of routine HIV screening in health-care settings, especially in populations disproportionately affected by HIV.


TABLE 1. Number and Percentage of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Tests Conducted, New Positive Test Results Identified, and Selected Outcomes, by Betting -- 25 Jurisdictions,* United States, October 2007 - September 2010

Setting

HIV tests

New positive test results

Received test results (n = 17,247)

Linked to medical care (n = 16,885)

Referred to partner services (n = 17,149)

No.

(%)

No.

(%)

No.

(%)

No.

(%)

Clinical

2,519,917

15,478

(0.6)

13,484

(93)

10,861

(78)

12,031

(83)

Nonclinical

266,822

2,954

(1.1)

2,253

(84)

1,850

(63)

2,203

(82)

Total

2,786,739

18,432

(0.7)

15,737

(91)

12,711

(75)

14,234

(83)

* California; Los Angeles County, California; Chicago, Illinois; Connecticut; Florida; Maryland; Georgia; Louisiana; Massachusetts; Michigan; Mississippi; Missouri; New Jersey; New York; New York City, New York; North Carolina; Ohio; Pennsylvania; Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; South Carolina; Tennessee; Texas; Houston, Texas; Virginia; and District of Columbia.

Does not equal total because of missing data.


TABLE 2. Number and Percentage of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Tests Conducted and New Positive Test Results Identified, by Sex and Race/Ethnicity -- 25 Jurisdictions,* United States, October 2007 - September 2010

Characteristic

HIV tests

New positive test results

No.

(%)

No.

(%)

Rate

Sex

Male

1,324,353

(54.7)

12,179

(72.0)

0.9

Female

1,089,486

(45.0)

4,528

(26.8)

0.4

Transgender

3,621

(0.1)

88

(0.5)

2.4

Unknown

3,796

(0.2)

114

(0.7)

3.0

Race/Ethnicity

Hispanic

386,319

(16.4)

1,936

(11.6)

0.5

American Indian/Alaska Native, non-Hispanic

9,686

(0.4)

43

(0.3)

0.4

Asian, non-Hispanic

28,763

(1.2)

87

(0.5)

0.3

Black, non-Hispanic

1,411,780

(59.9)

11,638

(69.7)

0.8

Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander, non-Hispanic

4,229

(0.2)

87

(0.5)

2.1

White, non-Hispanic

432,414

(18.3)

2,281

(13.7)

0.5

Multiple race

16,329

(0.7)

134

(0.8)

0.8

Unknown

68,290

(2.9)

496

(3.0)

0.7

Total

2,786,739

--

18,432

--

0.7

* California; Los Angeles County, California; Chicago, Illinois; Connecticut; Florida; Maryland; Georgia; Louisiana; Massachusetts; Michigan; Mississippi; Missouri; New Jersey; New York; New York City, New York; North Carolina; Ohio; Pennsylvania; Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; South Carolina; Tennessee; Texas; Houston, Texas; Virginia; and District of Columbia.

Categories do not sum to total because of missing data.


TABLE 3. Number and Percentage of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Tests Conducted and New Positive Test Results Identified, by Type of Venue -- 25 Jurisdictions,* United States, October 2007 - September 2010

Type of venue

Venues

HIV tests

New positive test results

No.

(%)

No.

(%)

No.

(%)

Rate

Emergency departments

108

(8.1)

766,393

(29.9)

5,408

(32.3)

0.7

Inpatient medical units

26

(2.0)

37,709

(1.5)

118

(0.7)

0.3

Urgent-care clinics

5

(0.4)

9,662

(0.4)

82

(0.5)

0.8

STD clinics

281

(21.1)

524,593

(20.5)

3,302

(19.7)

0.6

Correctional health facilities

183

(13.7)

383,620

(15.0)

2,312

(13.8)

0.6

Substance abuse treatment centers

76

(5.7)

23,912

(0.9)

146

(0.9)

0.6

TB clinics

49

(3.7)

17,143

(0.7)

60

(0.4)

0.3

Community health centers

270

(20.3)

431,278

(16.8)

2,061

(12.3)

0.5

Community-based organizations

98

(7.4)

162,785

(6.4)

1,880

(11.2)

1.2

Other§

235

(17.7)

205,029

(8.0)

1,365

(8.2)

0.7

Total 

1,331

(100.0)

2,786,739

--

18,432

--

0.7

Abbreviations: STD = sexually transmitted disease; TB = tuberculosis.

* California; Los Angeles County, California; Chicago, Illinois; Connecticut; Florida; Maryland; Georgia; Louisiana; Massachusetts; Michigan; Mississippi; Missouri; New Jersey; New York; New York City, New York; North Carolina; Ohio; Pennsylvania; Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; South Carolina; Tennessee; Texas; Houston, Texas; Virginia; and District of Columbia.

† Includes data for the 3rd year of the program

§ Includes primary-care clinics, targeted HIV testing events, university health centers, local health department outreach events, mobile medical units, field-based testing, syringe exchange programs, family planning clinics, anonymous test sites, public health clinics, shelters/transitional housing, and detention centers.

¶ Categories do not sum to total because of missing data.

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This article was provided by U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. It is a part of the publication Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Visit the CDC's website to find out more about their activities, publications and services.
 

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