HIV Among American Indians and Alaska Natives in the United States

March 20, 2018

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  1. US Census Bureau. Facts for features, American Indian and Alaska Native heritage month, November 2016. Accessed January 17, 2017.
  2. CDC. Diagnoses of HIV infection in the United States and dependent areas, 2015. HIV Surveillance Report 2016;27. Accessed January 17, 2017.
  3. CDC. High-Impact HIV Prevention: CDC's approach to reducing HIV infections in the United States. Accessed January 17, 2017.
  4. CDC. Improving HIV Surveillance among American Indians and Alaska Natives in the United States. Accessed January 17, 2017.
  5. CDC. Monitoring selected national HIV prevention and care objectives by using HIV surveillance data -- United States and 6 dependent areas -- 2014. HIV Surveillance Supplemental Report 2015;21(4). Accessed January 17, 2017.
  6. CDC. Sexually transmitted disease surveillance 2015. Accessed January 17, 2017.
  7. Burks DJ, Robbins R, Durtschi JP. American Indian gay, bisexual and two-spirit men: a rapid assessment of HIV/AIDS risk factors, barriers to prevention and culturally-sensitive intervention. Cult Health Sex 2011;13(3):283-98. PubMed Abstract.
  8. Bureau of Indian Affairs. Indian entities recognized and eligible to receive services from the United States Bureau of Indian Affairs.. Fed Regist 2012;77(155):47868. Accessed January 17, 2017.
  9. James C, Schwartz K, Berndt J. A profile of American Indians and Alaska Natives and their health coverage. Menlo Park, CA: Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation; 2009. Accessed January 17, 2017.
  10. Walters KL, Simoni JM, Evans-Campbell T. Substance use among American Indians and Alaska Natives: incorporating culture in an "Indigenist" stress-coping paradigm Public Health Rep 2002;117(1):s104-17. PubMed Abstract.
  11. Bertolli J, Lee LM, Sullivan PS, American Indian/Alaska Native Race/Ethnicity Data Validation Workgroup. Racial misidentification of American Indians/Alaska Natives in the HIV/AIDS reporting systems of five states and one urban health jurisdiction, US, 1984-2000. Public Health Rep 2007;122(3):382-94. PubMed Abstract.
  12. CDC. Deaths: final data for 2014. National Vital Statistics Reports 2016; 65(4). Accessed January 17, 2017.
  13. CDC. Trends in U.S. HIV diagnoses, 2005-2014. Accessed January 17, 2017.

Additional Resources


  1. Percentage of AI/AN reporting only one race.
  2. Hispanics/Latinos can be of any race.
  3. HIV and AIDS diagnoses indicate when a person is diagnosed with HIV infection or AIDS, but do not indicate when the person was infected.
  4. The term gay and bisexual men, referred to as men who have sex with men in CDC surveillance systems, indicates how individuals self-identify in terms of their sexuality, not a behavior that transmits HIV infection.
  5. In 32 states and the District of Columbia (the areas with complete lab reporting by December 2015).

[Note from TheBody: This article was originally published by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention on Feb. 9, 2018. We have cross-posted it with their permission.]

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